Symbolic computation deals with the computation of mathematical objects symbolically. This means that the mathematical objects are represented exactly, not approximately, and mathematical expressions with unevaluated variables are left in symbolic form.

Let’s take an example. Start the Python interpreter:


Say we wanted to use the built-in Python functions to compute square roots. We might do something like this

>>> import math
>>> math.sqrt(9)

Here we got the exact answer — 9 is a perfect square — but usually it will be an approximate result

>>> math.sqrt(8)

This is where symbolic computation first comes in: with a symbolic computation system like Diofant, square roots of numbers that are not perfect squares are left unevaluated by default

>>> import diofant
>>> diofant.sqrt(3)

Furthermore — and this is where we start to see the real power of symbolic computation — results can be symbolically simplified.

>>> diofant.sqrt(8)

Yet we can also approximate this number with any precision

>>> _.evalf(20)

The above example starts to show how we can manipulate irrational numbers exactly using Diofant. Now we introduce symbols.

Let us define a symbolic expression, representing the mathematical expression \(x + 2y\).

>>> x, y = diofant.symbols('x y')
>>> expr = x + 2*y
>>> expr
x + 2*y


Unlike many symbolic manipulation systems you may have used, in Diofant symbols are not defined automatically. To define symbols (instances of Symbol) you may use symbols().

Note that we wrote x + 2*y, using Python’s mathematical syntax, just as we would if x and y were ordinary Python variables. But in this case, instead of evaluating to something, the expression remains as just x + 2*y. Now let us play around with it:

>>> expr + 1
x + 2*y + 1
>>> expr - x

Notice something in the above example. When we typed expr - x, we did not get x + 2*y - x, but rather just 2*y. The x and the -x automatically canceled one another. This is similar to how sqrt(8) automatically turned into 2*sqrt(2) above.


Use evaluate() context or evaluate flag to prevent automatic evaluation, for example:

>>> diofant.sqrt(8, evaluate=False)
>>> _.doit()

This isn’t always the case in Diofant, however:

>>> x*expr
x*(x + 2*y)

Here, we might have expected \(x(x + 2y)\) to transform into \(x^2 + 2xy\), but instead we see that the expression was left alone. This is a common theme in Diofant. Aside from obvious simplifications like \(x - x = 0\) and \(\sqrt{8} = 2\sqrt{2}\), most simplifications are not performed automatically. This is because we might prefer the factored form \(x(x + 2y)\), or we might prefer the expanded form \(x^2 + 2xy\) — both forms are useful in different circumstances. In Diofant, there are functions to go from one form to the other

>>> diofant.expand(x*expr)
x**2 + 2*x*y
>>> diofant.factor(_)
x*(x + 2*y)

The real power of a symbolic computation system (which by the way, are also often called computer algebra systems, or just CASs) such as Diofant is the ability to do all sorts of computations symbolically: simplify expressions, compute derivatives, integrals, and limits, solve equations, work with matrices, and much more. Diofant includes modules for printing (like 2D pretty printed output of math formulas, or \(\LaTeX\)), code generation, combinatorics, number theory, logic, and more. Here is a small sampling of the sort of symbolic power Diofant is capable of, to whet your appetite.


From here on in this tutorial we assume that these statements were executed:

>>> from diofant import *
>>> a, b, c, d, t, x, y, z = symbols('a:d t x:z')
>>> init_printing(pretty_print=True)

Last one will make all further examples pretty print with unicode characters.

import * has been used here to aid the readability of the tutorial, but is best to avoid such wildcard import statements in production code, as they make it unclear which names are present in the namespace.

Take the derivative of \(\sin{(x)}e^x\).

>>> diff(sin(x)*exp(x))
 x           x
ℯ ⋅sin(x) + ℯ ⋅cos(x)

Compute \(\int(e^x\sin{(x)} + e^x\cos{(x)})\,dx\).

>>> integrate(exp(x)*sin(x) + exp(x)*cos(x))
ℯ ⋅sin(x)

Compute \(\int_{-\infty}^\infty \sin{(x^2)}\,dx\).

>>> integrate(sin(x**2), (x, -oo, oo))
  ___   ___
╲╱ 2 ⋅╲╱ π

Find \(\lim_{x\to 0^+}\frac{\sin{(x)}}{x}\).

>>> limit(sin(x)/x, x, 0)

Solve \(x^2 - 2 = 0\).

>>> solve(x**2 - 2, x)
⎡⎧      ___⎫  ⎧     ___⎫⎤
⎢⎨x: -╲╱ 2 ⎬, ⎨x: ╲╱ 2 ⎬⎥
⎣⎩         ⎭  ⎩        ⎭⎦

Solve the differential equation \(f'' - f = e^x\).

>>> f = symbols('f', cls=Function)
>>> dsolve(Eq(f(x).diff((x, 2)) - f(x), exp(x)))
        x ⎛     x⎞    -x
f(x) = ℯ ⋅⎜C₂ + ─⎟ + ℯ  ⋅C₁
          ⎝     2⎠

Find the eigenvalues of \(\left[\begin{smallmatrix}1 & 2\\2 & 2\end{smallmatrix}\right]\).

>>> Matrix([[1, 2], [2, 2]]).eigenvals()
⎧      ____         ____       ⎫
⎪3   ╲╱ 17        ╲╱ 17    3   ⎪
⎨─ + ──────: 1, - ────── + ─: 1⎬
⎪2     2            2      2   ⎪
⎩                              ⎭

Rewrite the Bessel function \(J_y\left(z\right)\) in terms of the spherical Bessel function \(j_y(z)\).

>>> besselj(y, z).rewrite(jn)
  ___   ___
╲╱ 2 ⋅╲╱ z ⋅jn(y - 1/2, z)
          ╲╱ π

Print \(\int_{0}^{\pi} \cos^{2}{\left (x \right )}\, dx\) using \(\LaTeX\).

>>> latex(Integral(cos(x)**2, (x, 0, pi)))
'\\int_{0}^{\\pi} \\cos^{2}{\\left (x \\right )}\\, dx'