# Solvers¶

This section covers equations solving.

Note

Any expression in input, that not in an Eq is automatically assumed to equal 0 by the solving functions.

## Algebraic Equations¶

The main function for solving algebraic equations is solve().

When solving a single equation, the output is a list of the solutions.

>>> solve(x**2 - x, x)
[0, 1]


If no solutions are found, an empty list is returned, or NotImplementedError is raised.

>>> solve(exp(x), x)
[]


solve() can also solve systems of equations.

>>> solve([x - y + 2, x + y - 3], [x, y])
{x: 1/2, y: 5/2}
>>> solve([x*y - 7, x + y - 6], [x, y])
⎡⎛    ___        ___    ⎞  ⎛  ___          ___    ⎞⎤
⎣⎝- ╲╱ 2  + 3, ╲╱ 2  + 3⎠, ⎝╲╱ 2  + 3, - ╲╱ 2  + 3⎠⎦


If you want a dictionary output, pass dict=True.

>>> solve([x - y + 2, x + y - 3], [x, y], dict=True)
[{x: 1/2, y: 5/2}]
>>> solve([x*y - 7, x + y - 6], [x, y], dict=True)
⎡⎧       ___           ___    ⎫  ⎧     ___             ___    ⎫⎤
⎢⎨x: - ╲╱ 2  + 3, y: ╲╱ 2  + 3⎬, ⎨x: ╲╱ 2  + 3, y: - ╲╱ 2  + 3⎬⎥
⎣⎩                            ⎭  ⎩                            ⎭⎦


solve() reports each solution only once.

>>> solve(x**3 - 6*x**2 + 9*x, x)
[0, 3]


To get the solutions of a polynomial including multiplicity use roots().

>>> roots(x**3 - 6*x**2 + 9*x, x)
{0: 1, 3: 2}


## Differential Equations¶

To solve differential equations, use dsolve(). First, create an undefined function by passing cls=Function to the symbols() function.

>>> f, g = symbols('f g', cls=Function)


f and g are now undefined functions. We can call f(x), and it will represent an unknown function application. Derivatives of f(x) are unevaluated.

>>> f(x).diff(x)
d
──(f(x))
dx


To represent the differential equation $$f''(x) - 2f'(x) + f(x) = \sin(x)$$, we would thus use

>>> Eq(f(x).diff(x, x) - 2*f(x).diff(x) + f(x), sin(x))
2
d           d
f(x) - 2⋅──(f(x)) + ───(f(x)) = sin(x)
dx           2
dx


To solve the ODE, pass it and the function to solve for to dsolve().

>>> dsolve(_, f(x))
x               cos(x)
f(x) = ℯ ⋅(C₁ + C₂⋅x) + ──────
2


dsolve() returns an instance of Eq. This is because in general, solutions to differential equations cannot be solved explicitly for the function.

>>> dsolve(f(x).diff(x)*(1 - sin(f(x))), f(x))
f(x) + cos(f(x)) = C₁


The arbitrary constants in the solutions from dsolve are symbols of the form C1, C2, C3, and so on.

dsolve() can also solve systems of equations, like solve().

>>> dsolve([f(x).diff(x) - g(x), g(x).diff(x) - f(x)], [f(x), g(x)])
⎡          ⎛ x    -x⎞      ⎛ x    -x⎞            ⎛ x    -x⎞      ⎛ x    -x⎞⎤
⎢          ⎜ℯ    ℯ  ⎟      ⎜ℯ    ℯ  ⎟            ⎜ℯ    ℯ  ⎟      ⎜ℯ    ℯ  ⎟⎥
⎢f(x) = C₁⋅⎜── + ───⎟ + C₂⋅⎜── - ───⎟, g(x) = C₁⋅⎜── - ───⎟ + C₂⋅⎜── + ───⎟⎥
⎣          ⎝2     2 ⎠      ⎝2     2 ⎠            ⎝2     2 ⎠      ⎝2     2 ⎠⎦